The US Securities and Exchange Commission announced in February that ABN AMRO Clearing Chicago will pay more than $586,000 to settle charges of improper handling of “pre-released” American Depositary Receipts (ADRs).
ADRs are US securities that represent foreign shares of a foreign company and require a corresponding number of foreign shares to be held in custody at a depositary bank. The practice of “pre-release” allows ADRs to be issued without the deposit of foreign shares, provided the broker receiving them has an agreement with a depositary bank and the receiving broker or its customer owns a number of foreign shares that corresponds to the number of shares the ADRs represent.
The SEC’s order found that ABN AMRO improperly borrowed pre-released ADRs from other brokers when it should have known that those brokers did not own the foreign shares needed to support those ADRs. The order against ABN AMRO also found that it failed reasonably to supervise its securities lending desk personnel concerning the borrowing of pre-released ADRs from these brokers.
Without admitting or denying the SEC’s findings, ABN AMRO agreed to return more than $326,000 of ill-gotten gains and pay a $179,353 penalty plus $80,970 in prejudgment interest.
This is the SEC’s 15th enforcement action against a bank or broker arising from its investigation into abusive ADR pre-release practices. In addition, the SEC charged four individuals for their roles in the improper handling of pre-released ADRs. Monetary remedies ordered across all of these cases exceed $432m.
The SEC’s investigations revealed that misconduct by numerous industry participants had the effect of introducing “phantom” ADRs into the marketplace. At times of high demand for ADRs, or when supply from traditional lending sources was limited, a number of brokers sought pre-released ADRs from intermediary brokers, who obtained them from depositary banks. Many of the brokers seeking the ADRs could not represent that they owned the underlying foreign shares to support a pre-release, and so they used intermediaries, which, in turn, obtained pre-released ADRs under false pretenses, including by providing false certifications. The depositary banks that issued the pre-released ADRs and the brokers who took custody of them should have known that under the circumstances, it was highly unlikely that anyone in the chain of transactions actually owned the requisite underlying foreign shares. The pre-released ADRs that were not backed by ordinary shares were often inappropriately used for trading strategies such as dividend arbitrage or short selling, which could not have otherwise occurred.
SEC Chairman Jay Clayton said, “the pre-release process was designed to accommodate international settlement complexities. It clearly prohibited the uncovered creation of new ADRs. The blatant misconduct identified in these 15 actions had real effects on market pricing. The work of our Enforcement Division should have lasting benefits for retail investors who use ADRs as a way to invest in foreign companies.”